Princess Kaiulani of Hawaii - Part 2

Princess Kaiulani of Hawaii

Hawaii - Child of Otaheite
Whatever happened to you
Monuments of glass, steel and chrome    
Where our people did roam    
Our thoughts are always with you       
Hawaii, born of goddess Pele
Whatever happened to you
While the volcanoes still rumble 
And send ashes to the sky
May the spirit of Pele never die        
Princess Kaiulani, Child of Hawaii
Whatever happened to you
A delicate flower in bloom
Taken from us far too soon 
May your sweet memory always remain 

Poem by Jane Resture 


With Stevens removed, a new U.S. Minister was appointed. Albert W. Willis arrived in Hawaii November 4, 1893, with instructions from President Cleveland to inform the Queen that she might "...Relay on the justice of this government to undo the flagrant wrong... However, at the same time, inform her that when reinstated, the President expects that she will pursue a magnanimous course, granting full amnesty to all who participated in the movement against her..."

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But Liliuokalani did not feel magnanimous towards those who had betrayed her. She was wary and cautious as she replied: "To grant amnesty is beyond my powers as a constitutional sovereign. I could not act without the consent of my ministers. those who are guilty of treason should suffer the penalty of death and their property be confiscated by the Government..."

In his notes, Minister Willis substituted the word "beheaded" for the Queen 's words "penalty of death". He duly reported back to Secretary of State Gresham, then arranged a second interview with the Queen. He read the statement back to her, "from notes of the former interview." Liliuokalani wrote later, "Had I held the document in my own hand and been permitted to read it, I would have noticed the clause: 'my opponents beheaded.' That is a form of punishment never used in the Hawaiian Islands either before or since the coming of the foreigners."

During the second interview with Willis, Liliuokalani still insisted on the penalty of banishment for those involved in the overthrow. "There will never be peace in the Islands as long as they remain here," she said. Many thought the new U.S. Minister Willis made an honest effort to carry out President Cleveland's instructions to: "...unto the Revolution and restore Liliuokalani to power." But it was already too late. The PGs dug their heels in and refused to give up. conditions worsened for the Hawaiian people. Homesteaders living on lands given to them by the Queen were now threatened with eviction, unless they signed the oath of allegiance in the PGs. This time, Sanford Ballard Dole, who had long been "caught in the middle," intervened on the Hawaiians' behalf. He assured them that he would personally prevent the loss of their lands. Letters to the Bulletin had called to dole to show "his real self again." One writer addressed him directly: "You have been loved by the Hawaiians and respected by haoles. We cannot believe you are so greatly changed..."

On September 12, Kaiulani wrote to her aunt from the Yews:

My Dear Aunt,
How you must hate the sight of the Central Union church. What a shame that a house of worship should be turned into a spy tower. I suppose it is wiser for you to remain at Washington Place, but how you must long to get away to some other place. If I was in your place, I am afraid I should pine away and die - I could not stand it - I am so tired of waiting-
By the time this reaches you it will be my birthday. I hope that you will remember me away from my relations and friends.

In a tense Honolulu, soldiers were billeted in both Central Union and Kawaiahao churches.

Kaiulani expressed her worries to her aunt:

I am getting to be quite a good needlewoman. Now things have gone wrong, my money matters are in a muddle. I am sure I do not know what I shall do if the PG don't give me some money. We were never very well off - I have to make $500 a year buy everything I need except my food and lodging - I have never been in debt till now.
I will try and be cheerful but I am so homesick! there is no disguising the fact.

Before U.S. Minister Willis arrived in Honolulu, Annie Cleghorn wrote to Kaiulani:

Well Kaiulani dear from all accounts it seems as though your Aunt will be restored. She has behaved remarkably well through all the insults that have been heaped upon her. she has been blackguarded right and left. I hope she will remember those who rejoiced and helped in the overthrow. They always professed to be great friends of Royalty. We have no American Minister here at present. I expect the next one will bring the news.

November of 1893 saw much unrest in Honolulu following attempts to restore Liliuokalani to the Throne. Her life was threatened many times.

To Kaiulani from her aunt, November 6, 1893:


You may understand how much your father and I had to go through, but there is nothing like being self-possessed and you ought to practice it. Think before you say or act and keep cool at all times. It has been the means of guiding my actions through all these nine months and from all I hear has had a good effect on the people that no blood has been shed, and will end in good results for us. Patience and endurance will always have its reward. I have not much time to write as everything around us seems to be in commotion. The American Minister calls on the PG this morning at eleven - will present his credentials. His name is Willis. He and wife and son arrived last Saturday by the Australia. He is the one who holds our future destiny in his hands.

Meanwhile the bulletin asked its readers: "What is a PG, since they are neither American nor Hawaiians?"


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*   *   *   *   *

The year 1894 dawned in a Honolulu by an atmosphere of tension and suspicion. Many were "spied on" for showing the slightest hint of disloyalty to the PGs. The organist at Kawaiahao Church was arrested on little more than "suspicion of disloyalty." while another German resident was pulled in for saying "Damn the PGs!" in public. A luau at the Waimanalo home of John Cummins was raided as it "appeared to be a Royalist meeting"...and even the chapel of the Seventh Day Adventists was raided. Finally, all large gatherings were forbidden by the jittery PGs. In her writings, the Queen gave a glimpse of the trusting nature of the Hawaiians: "Although it is generally conceded all over the world, and common sense would seem to show how one should act towards one's enemies, yet there was the strangest intermingling of those of the two parties, which were called the 'Royalists" and the 'PGs'. Instead of recognizing each other as enemies, and keeping apart as such, they associated as in former days. Visiting went on just the same, exchanges of thought and opinion were the same. The Royalists, open-hearted and free of speech, socially ignored the fact that the PGs were, in every material sense, their enemies. These latter kept the situation in view, and with soft words studied to worm out of the unsuspecting all that they could in the way of information as to Royalist hopes and plans, that the particulars might be communicated to the PG Government..."

Meanwhile, "other voices" in Honolulu were clamouring to be heard. Although most opinions on the mainland seemed to simply divide the "problem of Hawaii" as between Hawaiians and haole missionaries, there were other races to be considered; races that had been over-looked by the "Reformers" in their zeal to get rid of the Monarchy. They had been brought in as field hands on plantations, but many had "bettered" themselves by 1893 and had acquired businesses in Honolulu.

Now they demanded their "rights." They were interested in who governed the Islands, too. The Japanese had become ambitious and opened u shops in town. The Chinese had followed the same pattern some years before. The Provisional Government now tried to curb the enterprise of these Orientals by saying they could only enter into trade and business with their consent. Loud protests ensued. The Portuguese immigrants chose to support the Provisional Government, right from its inception in 1893. They even joined the PGs Armed forces with their own "Volunteer Company C." Early in the year, the provisional Government announced plans for a day-long celebration of its first anniversary in January, 1894. "What are they celebrating?" asked Editor Dan Logan of the Bulletin. "They have glutted themselves with mean revenges. They have a four million dollar debt and a standing army of idle men and spies..."

The threat of trouble about to erupt, hung over Honolulu like a tangible cloud, lingering... full of portent. Everyone was being spied on for the slightest hint of disloyalty to the KPGs and every luau by Hawaiians was suspected of being a "Royalist meeting." B this time, many foreigners who formerly supported the PGs regretted to overthrow of the Monarchy and detested the suspicion nature of the government that now reigned in its place.

HOPOHOPO: (Uncertainly)
And the limits of time settled over them like confining
And an unknown anxiety cramped their spirits
For now  they were hastening towards a death when
they would be judged...
Even for "sins" with which they were born.
And they were Children of Nature no more.
For they were trapped by these Holy Jugglers of
People's Lives
And like drowners clinging to slender reeds
They held fast to the last traces of their old beliefs
Lest the mouth of time swallow them up forever
And they drew on all their inner creativity to devise
means of preservation.

The PG leaders made many changes to existing laws. soon, they realized it would also be wise to get rid of the word "provisional" in their title. After all they were the government now! On March 15, 1894, they called a convention to draft a constitution for their new title: "The Republic of Hawaii." On July 4, Sanford Ballard dole announced its inauguration and proclaimed himself "President." The same day, Liliuokalani wrote in her diary: "What matters if they do set up their Constitution and establish a Republic? When the U.S. is ready, she will undo all that her Minister has done..." But the royalists were getting restless. they wanted to know exactly what the President of the United States intended to do about the Hawaiian Islands.

Finally, the Queen arranged for a delegation of three to journey to Washington and find out first hand what hope still existed for her restoration. John Cummins, Judge Herman A. Widemann and Samuel Parker sailed on July 13. Major William T. Seward accompanied John Cummins as his secretary. After waiting for two weeks to see President Cleveland, they received instead a letter from him delivered to the Arlington Hotel. It read in part:

"...Quite lately a Government has been established in Hawaii which is in full force and operation in all parts of the Islands. It is maintaining its authority and discharging all ordinary governmental functions... and it is clearly entitled to our recognition without regard to any of the incidents which accompanied or preceded its inauguration. this recognition and the attitude of the Congress concerning Hawaiian affairs of course leads to an absolute denial of the least present or future aid or encouragement on my part to any effort to restore any government heretofore existing in the Hawaiian Islands..."

Once in control, "The PGs" demanded that everyone sign an "oath of allegiance" to them. Rather than sign, the royal Hawaiian Band boys all resigned. Their bandmaster Henry Berger told them they would starve if they did not earn a living and they would be forced to eat stones... One of the bandboys replied they would be proud to eat stones; all that was left to them, mystic food of their native land. Local composer Ellen Prendergast (Kekoaohiwaikalani) was so moved and inspired by the bandboys' loyalty that she composed the song of rebellion: "Mele Ai OPohaku"... "The one Eaters Chant". The first verse moved everyone who heard it:

Kaulana na pua a'o Hawai'i
Kipa'a mahope o ka 'aina
Hiki mai ka 'elele o ka loke 'ino
Palapala 'anunu me ka pakaha.
Famous are the flowers of Hawaii
Ever loyal to the land
When the evil-hearted messenger comes
With his greedy document of extortion.

Reeling from the terrible news that kept reaching her like a dark stream, Kaiulani in England, wrote to Mary Gaines, a friend in Ireland:

I feel such a pull from the Islands in this time of trouble for my people. I often cry for my far islands... and I swear I can hear something calling back to me. Is this normal I wonder?
They are as living things to me... as real as relatives. Oh/ I do hope justice and goodness prevail and my people are able to hold the nation together. they don't deserve what's happening...

"C.K." Wrote to Kaiulani; an account of a Royalist ceremony with ancient roots:

As all gatherings are now forbidden to us, we have devised methods of passing along information or sometimes just to give ourselves hope for our cause. Uncle says we Hawaiians have always been poets and masters of allegory.

Recently your aunt gave a large piece of her land as a park in Pauoa Valley. We all decided to carry out the planting with formal Hawaiian ceremony as in the old days. Uncle supervised everything. The park is to be called Uluhaimalama which of course means to us: "as the plants grow upwards from the dark earth towards the light: so will light come to our nation."

As usual, suspicious PG Police patrolled the streets leading to the park... spying on everything we did! I was so moved when the first small group of Hawaiians arrived for the morning ceremony. they were led by our own National Band which the boys formed, after resigning from the royal Hawaiian Band, rather than play for the PGs who took that band over. What a scene it was. V.K. I wish you could have been there. Each Hawaiian wore a hatband with lettering in gold, spelling out Ulu-hai-malama. they kept coming from all directions. My heart was bursting with love for our people that day!
At nine a.m. the band played the National anthem. Many people were crying, at your Koa (Prince David) planted a sapling of the lehua tree which is, as you know, much loved by the Queen. Then an old man, Nalani, chanted to her: "This is the Heavenly One! May the gods protect her as she protects her people..."
Other trees and shrubs were then planted around the lehua to symbolize the circle of the love with which the people surrounded their Monarch. Nalani chanted on: "The kukui... a light for your government. The hala polapola... your favourite lei, O Heavenly One... sweet to inhale. The pilimai: the love for your people clings to you. Cling fast to your land... your people... your throne, Oh Our queen!"
Then a very ancient ritual followed... A single stone had been placed on top of a small mound of earth. It was a symbol of the creation of the earth. The old chanter's voice rose as he praised the land; the true mother of all...
Many loving hands then patted the soft earth surrounding the stone, and so many Hawaiian t4ears fell into that soil. Then the people sang the Stone Eaters Chant: "Mele Aloha Aina; song of The Land We Love."
Oh, Kaiulani, something great and eternal in our people will live on, I know it. I have faith in their mana!
In England, Kaiulani told a friend:
... Last night I dreamt I heard my peacocks crying in the night. So plaintive and lost they sounded. I awoke with my throat aching, because I couldn't let my feelings out...


With Royalist circles buzzing with plans for armed revolt, Herman Widemann made one last attempt at easing the situation through diplomacy. He asked John Bush for help in gathering as many native signatures as they  could put on a petition which asked the Queen to send an envoy to the great powers of Europe. Perhaps they would aid the Hawaiian royalists' cause. Via Washington, Widemann went on the mission himself, paying his own expenses. All Hawaii waited. The impatient royalists waited. But Judge Widemann had no good news to send back from Europe. Everywhere he went, he was refused official reception. the Republic of Hawaii was widely recognized now, as the established government. The PGs were winning.

The Queen wrote in her journal:

"At the time of the return of Mr. Widemann from abroad, the intensity of the feeling was at its height amongst the Hawaiian people that something should be done to save their country. Of their own accord, they bought rifles, pistols and other arms, stealthily keeping these for future use.

"Many who swore allegiance to the "Republic of Hawaii" began to regret bitterly that they ever permitted themselves to support the revolutionary party. They had been in comfortable circumstances, had even laid aside for a rainy day and felt that the savings of their years of prosperity would find them independent in life's decline. but since the overthrow of honest government they had lost, or been forced to spend all they had accumulated, and the little business left to them would scarcely sustain their families. Weary with waiting, impatient under the wrongs they were suffering, preparations were undoubtedly made amongst some in sympathy with the monarchy, to overthrow the oligarchy... If they were now by one accord, determined to break away, and endeavour by a bold stroke, to win back their nationality, why should I prohibit the outburst of patriotism? I told them that if the mass of the native people chose to rise, and try to throw off the yoke, I would say nothing against it, but I could not approve of mere rioting..."

Unofficially, Secretary of State, Gresham remained on the side of the Monarchy's cause, even encouraging the royalists to fight for its restoration if they had to. The investigative party, sent by the Queen, returned to Honolulu on Thursday, August 30. Word had reached them... on Aug. 27... that President Cleveland had: "recognized the Republic of Hawaii." With disappointment, the royalists realized that Cleveland had been forced to abandon their cause. The mounting pressures became too great for his party as they prepared for elections in the fall. Meanwhile, letters of sympathy for the fallen Monarchy poured into Hawaii from all over the United States. some people even offered to come over and "fight for the Queen."

President Cleveland was ousted in the fall elections and McKinley went into office. In Honolulu, the royalists were gathering arms for a clash with the government that had taken over their land. So many felt that it was useless to talk anymore with those in power. they had nothing left but to fight.  

*   *   *   *   *

When Kaiulani was five years old, her uncle King Kalakaua had visited Japan on his trip around the world in 1881. It was a trip designed to declare Hawaii a sovereign nation amongst the other nations of the world and it also made him the first King to circumnavigate the globe. His Majesty was very impressed with the manners and appearance of a fifteen year old Prince whom he met at Japanese training school where young men were rigorously prepared for military careers. Komatsu was a nephew of the Mikado, Emperor of Japan, and the political possibilities of an alliance between the Prince and Kaiulani loomed in Kalakaua's mind. On impulse, the Hawaiian King sought a private audience with the Japanese Emperor and, after a formal tea ceremony at the Imperial Palace, he proposed the future marriage of the two young people.

In wanting to unite the Thrones of Hawaii and Japan, Kalakaua foresaw that Japan's powerful navy would make an impressive ally in the defense of his tiny Kingdom against usurpation by other nations, and especially America, whose citizens in Hawaii already had too much control of the economics and politics of Hawaii. On the other hand, the islands were strategically placed in the Pacific for coaling and trading purposes and offered fresh land for homesteading and commercial pursuits. The conversation continued between the two rulers with many veiled allusions to all of the benefits of such an alliance. The Emperor's countenance was stoic as he neither declined nor accepted, but pointed out that Prince Komatsu was already betrothed, hinting, however, that engagements can sometimes be broken.

(After Kalakaua's return to Hawaii, the proposal was politely declined in a letter from Prince Komatsu himself who regretted that he was already betrothed) Thirteen years later, when Queen Liliuokalani was desperately searching for support in her fight against Annexation, she wrote of the proposal to Kaiulani who apparently had not heard of it before, In along letter written from Washington Place, the queen spoke of both Kaiulani's and Hawaii's future.

My Dear Niece,

Your father called the other day and kindly handed me your note, and I am so glad to hear from you. It is true that many reports have been circulated in the newspapers about my restoration, and in fact many thought it was already settled, but many causes arose that prevented its immediate accomplishment, but I suppose you will have read of it by this time and everything connected with our situation by the President's Message to the Senate and Congress. The delay is unfortunate but the President has said the wrong must be righted, and so it will have to be as according to my protest, everything has been sifted by able men specially appointed to investigate our affairs and their statements have proved satisfactory that the "Queen has done as wrong, but that the American Minister Stevens has done a great wrong." So my dear child we are only waiting for the "good news", then you may come home. It has been a weary waiting and everybody seems disheartened almost with the waiting. business is dull, no money circulating and those who have it will not spend because of the present government - as everything done now is illegal and it would be a loss to them or parties venturing to spend.

You have asked me a direct question and I must be candid with you in regard to Prince David. I had not thought of mentioning to you about your future until the proper moment arrived but as you already mention it, it is best you should marry one or the other of the Princes, that we may have more aliis. There are no other aliis whom they (the people) look to except Prince David or his brother who would be eligible to the Throne, or worthy of it, and they turn to these two aliis that there may be more aliis to make the throne permanent according to the constitution. To you then depends the hope of the nation and unfortunately we cannot always do as we like, in our position as ruler and which you will have to be some day, in some things our course and actions will have to be guided by certain rules and which could not be avoided. I am pleased to see your candor in regard to Prince David - It is good to be candid.

The last part of the Queen's letter discussed the Japanese Prince:

I have to mention another matter, one which I think you ought to know and I hope you will write at your earliest chance and inform me what your opinion is in this matter. When your uncle, the late King was living, he made arrangements that you should be united to one of the Japanese Princes. He is the nephew to the Emperor of Japan. It seems that the young Prince was here in the Naniwa on her first trip last year, but our position was such that he could not present himself, so I have not seen him, I understand now that the Prince is in England being educated so you may meet him on your return. I do not know his name but should you meet him and think you could like him I give you full leave to accept him, should he propose to you and offer his hand and fortune. It would be a good alliance. They speak highly of his qualities. And now do not hesitate to open your heart to me. I shall be very glad if such an alliance could be consummated between you two and I shall look forward for a letter from you with eagerness, saying it was agreeable to you, and that will encourage his suit. do not wish to get fat. If you could only see me you would not wish to be. I have grown almost as stout as Kahuila Wilcox. I am pleased to know that you have a lady with you whose society is pleasing to you. I hope she will come out with you. The above must be between you and I and not mentioned outside until such alliance could be consummated between you two, and of course you can write me, then it does not matter if it goes abroad.

Your affectionate Aunt,
Washington Place, Jan, 29, 1894.

It took Kaiualani five months to reply to her Aunt:

10 Beaumont Street, London  W.
June 22, 1894.

Dear Aunt,

It is a very long time since I received your kind letter, I have often tried to answer it, but have failed, I have thought over what you said in it about my marrying some Prince from Japan.

Unless it is absolutely necessary, I would much rather not do so.

I could have married an enormously rich German Count, but I could not care for him. I feel it would be wrong if I married a man I did not love. I should be perfectly unhappy, and we should not agree and instead of being an example to the married women of today I should become like them, merely a woman of fashion and most likely a flirt. I hope I am not expressing myself too strongly, but I feel I must speak out to you and there must be perfect confidence between you and me dear Aunt.

I have been looking anxiously every day in the papers for news from home, but nothing seems to have happened. I wish things could be properly settled. It is such weary work, waiting here not knowing what is happening.

The course of Hawaiian history might have been quite different if Kaiulani had received a proposal from the Japanese prince. Apparently, King Kalakaua and Queen Liliuokalani strongly believed that a marriage between Kaiulani and Komatsu could have been advantageous to both Hawaii and Japan and would have established a Japanese Protectorate over the Hawaiian Island. As the clouds of Annexation gathered ominously, the Japanese Government would have asked Hawaii in her struggle to remain free.

*   *   *   *   *

Still deeply disturbed by the bad news that kept reaching her from home, Kaiulani wrote to her aunt of her travels in Germany in mid 1894.

I was quite sorry to leave Germany, everyone had been so very kind to me there, and they have sympathized with us so much. During the last month of my stay in Germany I went to Berlin and there I saw the grand Parade before the emperor and Empress. It was really a sight worth seeing, there were nearly twenty thousand soldiers and the Emperor had a staff of 100 officers. Berlin is a most interesting city, it is much more beautiful than London as streets are so wide and most beautifully kept. I visited all the palaces of the Emperors. Frederick the Great's Palace of Sans Souci I cared least for; it was built after the style of Versailles. he was a very great admirer of the French.

Potsdam where the emperor stays when he is near Berlin is a most lovely spot about 10 miles from it. It is on the borders of two lakes and all around it is quite wooded. All the best regiments are stationed there and it is altogether a very sweet place.

Always pleased to talk to someone about home, Kaiulani wrote of a visit by Mr. and Mrs. Walker. He was the British vice Consul to Hawaii, and Mrs. Walker was one of Kaiulani's travelling companions when she sailed from Hawaii in 1889.

Mr. and Mrs. Walker came to see me day before yesterday. I was so pleased to see them. We had such a good talk about Honolulu. She was very much astonished to find how very tall and slight I am, as she always imagined me stout as I was when I was a school-girl. I am leaving London on Tuesday to visit Mrs. Sharp and then I go to the Davies family for most of the summer.

At the approach of the holidays she wrote to Aunt Liliuokalani from Southport:

...I must just write you a few rods to wish you a Merry Xmas and a Happy New year. this is my sixth Xmas I have spent away from my home, it seems as if I were fated never to come back.

Concerned about her aunt's recent trouble with her eyesight Kaiulani sympathized:

I know well what it is to suffer from the eyes. Sometimes now if I look very long at anything I get such a headache I don't know what to do.

A description of Kaiulani by a friend in the mid 1890s:

Animated, capricious, headstrong, yes but her vivacity had a certain quiet sadness. Her eyes were too large above cheeks flashed hectically, but such pride of bearing, love of companions and heart-felt loyalty of feeling for her native Hawaiians.

From Honolulu. "C.K." wrote of an upsetting incident:

The other evening all the family came over, Auntie Winona and her children; their husbands and wives; two of Mama's older sisters and a lot of other friends. Well, you know these Hawaiian gatherings... such warmth and good food and music and fun. Each of the older women... and their men, got u and did their own personal version of the hula. some were very funny. Auntie Win is a comedy in herself.

Suddenly, the door burst open... our front door which opens right into our large living room.Then four soldiers from the PG guard pushed their way inside and pointed their rifles at us! The children screamed. Papa moved quickly to stand in front of Mama and me. My brother Kimo stood in front of them and asked what they wanted. And do you know V.K. one of the soldiers hit him in the chest with his rifle butt and knocked him out of the way! "All gatherings of Hawaiians are forbidden by the government!" the leader shouted at us. he was a mean looking fellow with a smirk on his red face. His eyes went all around the room. On the mantel-piece we always have that lovely framed picture of you. do you know he went over and picked it up and smirked at it. We thought he was going to take it, but he put it down again, because I was glaring at him all the while. "This looks like a royalist meeting to me, I'll be putting that in my report... along with your names," he said. then he proceeded to make a list of everyone in the room.

Well, we all got the fright of our lives. Poor auntie Winona had to lie down and so did Mama, after the soldiers left, needless to say, that was the end of the party. An innocent get-together by our own family! Oh, Kaiulani what have our lives become here? It's getting unbearable. something ahs to be done...

he beginning of 1895 in Honolulu was hot with secret plans for imminent rebellion . Even foreigners were "fed up" with the PGs. 

In late November, 1894, major William T. Seward, a former American Army officer and friend of John Cummins (he had accompanied Cummins to Washington earlier in the year) had gone to California and bought arms and ammunition. It was rumoured that the Spreckels family paid for them, but it is closer to the truth to conclude that royalists of wealthy background in Honolulu all donated towards the cause. The arms were shipped to Honolulu on the schooner Wahlberg which landed on windward Oahu the night of December 30. Under the cover of a dark, moonless sky, the cache was transferred to the coastal steamer Waimanalo whose captain, William Davies, was a devoted royalist. The Waimanalo rendezvoused off the Diamond head home of Henry Bertelmann on January 3, 1895. The royalists were to launch their first attach that night, but their ranks were overly enthusiastic as they assembled by the hundreds at the Honolulu harbour waterfront. The suspicion of the ever-watchful PG Police were aroused. They sped to the noisy gathering. many Hawaiians were arrested... some were severely beaten.

Currently on the side of the monarchy, the changeable Robert Robert Wilcox rode at full gallop towards the Bertelmann home at Diamond Head where the steamer Waimanalo lay offshore. Leaping from his sweaty horse, Wilcox paddled a canoe out to the dark ship to warn Captain Davies that the harbor was now under heavy guard by the PGs. Most of the guns and ammunition were then carried ashore and buried in the sand at the foot of Diamond head, crouched like a huge guardian lion in the darkness. some of the arms and shells were planted in the home of newspaper editor John e. bush and more in queen Liliuokalanio's fragrant garden at Washington Place on Beretania St. The royalists were ready to fight for their Queen. On the night of January sixth, the PG Police, strained and jumpy with continued rumors of a Royalist uprising, searched through Waikiki, looking for hidden guns. The PG patrol, led by Captain Robert Parker, was joined by Charles Carter and two of his friends who tagged along enroute, "just for the fun of it."

As they scouted the Diamond Head area, they were fired on from the dark shadows around Henry Bertelmann's house. Carter began to lag behind, making grunting noises through clenched teeth. Then his heavy body fell clumsily into the shrubbery. Blood spurted from gaping wounds in his shoulder and abdomen. As the PG party fired furiously back, two Hawaiian royalists were shot. They bled profusely from chest and leg wounds and lay unattended on Benelmann's lawn. A PG courier was promptly despatched to Honolulu to enlist reinforcements fort their side. Charles Carter died the next morning from his royalist-inflicted wounds. A report published by the anti-Royalist newspaper The Star called him: "a martyr for the cause..." and mentioned that he was one of the five Annexation commissioners who had hastened to Washington in 1893.

News of the flare-up at Bertelmann's house spread like wildfire throughout Royalist circles. The PGs were now shooting on sight any straggles who had taken part in the fighting that killed Charles Carter. The tired royalist rebels headed for refuge on the massive sides of Diamond Head. A PG gunboat anchored offshore fired its cannon at them as they moved like ants through the greyish bracken. They were attacked from land and sea. Tired and outnumbered, the Hawaiians were beaten and lay wounded and dying on the slopes of Diamond Head. After the uprising, more than a hundred Hawaiian royalists were thrown in jail and on January 16, almost two years to the day from the time she was asked to abdicate, Queen Liliuokalani was placed under arrest. she was always a threat as long as she was free. She was taken into custody at Washington Place then driven under guard to Iolani Palace where she was imprisoned. 

She later wrote: "My crime was that I knew my people were conspiring to throw off the yoke of the oppressor."

The Queen also wrote that, after being arrested, she glanced back through the window of the carriage that drove her away and saw Chief Justice Judd of the Supreme Court entering Washington Place. A local newspaper print4ed the following item: "While the rebels fought for days on the barren slopes of Diamond Head, without proper food or drink to sustain them, one Hawaiian woman took her place fearlessly beside the men. She only put her rifle down and took time off once: to bake a dog for the starving men to eat. It was her own pet."

At Iolani Palace the Queen was led, under guard, to a suite of a bare upstairs rooms; airy, but uncarpeted. A small bed stood in one corner. A week later, her Marshal of the Kingdom, Charles Wilson, brought her a document of complete abdication, prepared by the Provisional government and their lawyers. The Queen reluctantly signed, hesitating as she wondered which name she should use. She was told "Just plain Liliuokalani Dominis..." Her title meant nothing to them. Writing later of those dark days, the Queen said she hoped: "... by signing this paper... all those who had been arrested... all of my people now in trouble by reason of their love and loyalty towards me... would be immediately released. The stream of blood, ready to flow, could be stayed by my pen..." But some blood had already flowed. some lives were already altered forever. 

All of the Queen's personal retainers and servants at Washington Place were also thrown into prison. They later told of their outrage as they watched the Chief Justice rummaging through the Queen's private papers, her bureau drawers and her safe until he found her diaries. He then began to read them until, feeling the scornful eyes of the staff on him, he stuffed the books into his pockets and left the house. the following account of her arrest and imprisonment is from "Private Memoranda of the Queen," dated March 4, 1895, Iolani Palace:

"At l0.00 a.m. of Wed. the sixteenth of Jan. 1895, I was occupied in my bedroom. Mrs. Wilson, who had just come in, notified me that Deputy Marshal Brown and Capt. Waipa were coming up the front walk. I told her to show them into the parlor and soon followed her. "On my entrance, before I had a chance to speak, Mr. Brown told me that he had been sent to serve a summons on me, holding up a paper which he held in his hands, and never delivered to me up to this day. He went on to say that I must accompany them, it took me a few minutes to get ready. In the meantime, Waipa had followed me to my room, followed by Mrs. Wilson, Mrs. Clark, Milaina Wakaki, J. Heleluhe and others.

"Waipa said, while tears streamed down his cheeks, that he never thought that he would be the one to have to perform such a unpleasant duty on my person... that of arresting me. (Were they crocodile tears?) He and Mrs. Clark was to accompany me. After bidding my ohuas goodbye, I entered Mr. Brown's carriage and with Waipa drove out of Washington Place."

"Quite a crowd of people had gathered in front of the Central Union church to see my departure and more were coming with sad countenances and tears. We turned down Richard St. while in my mind I wondered what they were going to do with me. A few minutes brought us to Kinau Gate and we turned into the Palace grounds."

"As we drove towards the Palace, I saw a number of soldiers lying on the grass near tents on the ewa side of Kauikeooli Gate, in uniforms, with guns either stacked, or by their side... every man with cartridge belts ready to spring at a moment's notice. Our carriage stopped at the mouka steps of the Palace and I was told to alight. Capt. J.H. Fisher very politely stepped forward and offered his hand, which I took and he lead the way. I noticed Mr. W.C. King pointing his camera at us and have since seen the picture in the Examiner. With Mr. Fisher and Brown and Waipa ahead, we mounted the long stairs..." 

*   *   *   *   *

During these times of conflict, heroes emerged, such as Irish-Hawaiian Lost Lane. With his handful of rugged royalists, he was the last to leave the steep battleground of Diamond Head. some of his men were badly wounded, as they hacked their way through the green tangle of Manoa valley. wild PG bullets flew around them. They passed many small homes in the area, where Hawaiian and Chinese Valley residents brought them whatever food and water they could spare. Lot separated from them and went back up the mountain alone. He was shot at and tracked by blood-hounds before he reached the lookout spot he sought. For three days he remained, high on a mountain crevice. Then he noticed that all firing had ceased in the city below. He rushed down, thinking that the promised foreign aid had, at last, been given to the Hawaiian cause. but a friend met him, enroute. His dark face was streaked with bitter tears. The man could barely mouth the words: "Our Queen was arrested today. Most of our friends are in jail too."

Lot replied that he must join his comrades. His friend warned that the PGs might shoot him on sight. But Lot strode off. Unshaven, barefoot and ragged, he presented himself at the PG Police Headquarters. "I'm Lot Lane," he announced. With the most sought-after fugitive standing before them, The PGs on duty were undecided how to handle his arrest. He was a giant, this one, and might be a bit rough to handle. They fidgeted with papers on their desks. Then one became the spokesman: "We demand to know the names of those who helped the Hawaiian cause!" But they got nothing from Lot Lane. Eventually he was hustled off, by six guards, to a dingy room where more than a hundred starving, forlorn Hawaiians were lying or squatting on the floor. One thin young boy with the distinctive Kainoa features etching his face sat in a corner by himself. Blood was caked on his forehead and matted his hair. Kimo Kainoa had decided to join the rebels at the last minute. He caught up with stragglers from Lot's group as PG bullets drove them deeper into Manoa Valley. But Kimo merely slowed down the path of a PG bullet as it grazed the side of his head. It was too late to fight.

On seeing them, Lot went berserk, he knocked over a stack of tin plates with a loud clatter and demanded food for the men. Frightened PG guards mumbled that it was "too late at night..." But Lot roared again, demanding food. Meat and poi were brought to them. On the day the trials of the "traitors" began, the Throne Room, the make-shift courtroom was filled to capacity. The loyal Royalists filed in: The six Lane brothers, a ruggedly good-looking group, and intense-faced revolutionary Robert Wilcox, who could never quite decide on his cause. With his head held high, the alii entered: Prince Kuhio, the brother of Koa (Prince Davied) then came Anglo-Hawaiian John Cummins, distinguished with his white hair and long white beard, Cecile Kainoa, her long black hair falling down her straight back and her fine features stoic. And Kimo Kainoa, all at once looking far more mature than his father, Daniel, was conspicuous by his absence. He had died of a stroke while in jail.

Twenty-five ragged, hungry-looking Hawaiians were brought in, all in one batch. The crowd gasped at their pathetic appearance. In all, one hundred and ninety-one: royalists were on trial. When Lot Lane was questioned, he said simply, as if to answer for all of them, "I went to fight for my country and my Queen..." "We're not interested in that!" snapped the prosecutor. Rat-faced and solemn, he brushed dandruff from the collar of his black suit, his long fingers flicking. "We want to know where you got the guns!" He raised his voice and fixed his eyes on Lot. But Lot ignored the question and carried on making his own statements: "You say I am a traitor! to whom? My country? My Queen? No! You are the traitors! To the people who gave you aloha in their own land. If I have done anything wrong against my country, then punish me. But I can only be punished if I have hurt my own land which God gave to us Hawaiians for life!"

By now most of the crowd was on its feet, cheering. They were quickly quietened by the PG guards. All the royalist were found guilty. their sentences ranged from one to five years hard labor. some were fined a thousand dollars... others five thousand. All the Royalists were found guilty. Their sentences ranged from one to five years hard labor. Some were fined a thousand dollars... other five thousand. Many individuals had saved their own skins by deciding to give evidence against the Royalists. Samual Nowlein and Henry Bertelmann were but two who were promised their lives in exchange for their testimony. They were delighted to be given their liberty. Bertelmann was particularly overcome. He wept for joy, then took sick and was unable to leave the Police Station for some time. Very little public attention was paid to him. But Nowlein aroused general contempt, threats and hatred. He's formerly been such a close aide of the Queen.

Liliuokalani wrote:

"The knowledge of the secreting of arms on my premises, the distribution of munitions of war amongst the people who were guarding my house and grounds, has been imputed to me. Whether any arms were brought there, where they were, or what they were, I never took occasion to inquire. I never saw a single pistol or rifle by day or by night."

"I remember that I had occasion to scold my gardener for the disturbed condition in which I often found my plants. It seemed as though some persons had been digging up the ground, and replacing the disturbed soil. But no arms were secreted by me or by my orders about the place from the roof to the cellar, or from one and to the other of the garden, nor were any kept there to my knowledge, save parlor rifles and harmless old-fashioned muskets..."

While awaiting her own trial. Liliuokalani was kept prisoner in the poorly furnished room in Iolani Palace; the building which she had occupied as Queen during the last days of its opulence. Loyal Hawaiian friends and some foreign sympathizers smuggled news in to her. It was always newspaper wrappings that covered the cakes, other food-stuffs or flowers they brought her. The monotonous beat of the armed guard's foot-steps, back and forth, outside her door, irritated the Queen's already frayed nerves. On the fourth day of her imprisonment, her lawyer had informed her that she and six of the leaders of the revolution were to be "shot for treason." In her journal, the Queen wrote that her doctor Donald McLelan had been in attendance on her for three months prior to the revolt in January, 1895: "As I was suffering very severely from nervous prostration, he prescribed electricity. For two years I had borne the long agony of suspense, a terrible strain, which at last made great inroads on my strength." Further, in her memoranda dated April 18th, 1895: "7.45 a.m.... Dr McLelan called... said might leave off battery and only use when required... but to exercise often."

And further:

"1.15 p.m.... Mr. Wilson called... gave him my gold eye glasses to take to Lindsey and have him put in cleats to hold on the nose... also my gold pen to repair... Soup from Mrs. Sam Allen... cake from Mrs. Haalelea... bunches of pansies from Kaiaha Ward... bouquet of carnations from Miss Finckler... all sent to the Queen with much love. Was engaged for the rest of the day arranging my compositions..."

Liliuokalani worked on her now famous song, "Aloha Oe," while imprisoned. The following item appeared in the New York Evening Post on May 16, 1895:

"San Francisco, California, May 16... Captain Julius A. Palmer Jrn. who went to the Hawaiian Islands to investigate the state of affairs there as special correspondent of the New York Evening Post, three months ago, arrived here on the Australia. He believes there will soon  be a crisis there and that the end can only be the restoration of the monarchical form of government. He says there never will be harmony until the Monarchy is restored and Princess Kaiulani placed on the throne..."
Col. Ashford, ex-Attorney-General of Hawaii, who arrived on the same steamer, expressed similar views:
"There is a perfect reign of terror in the Islands: informers are everywhere. People do not dare speak in their own houses. There is everywhere a feeling of uncertainty, doubt and impending danger and ruin. those who favoured Annexation have made up their minds that it is impossible.
"The missionaries as we call most of the political party in power, have claimed to be in favour of Annexation, but we have never been really. The Annexationists mistrust them now."
"As to the future. Well, Annexation is an impossibility and all are about agreed on that. Thurston has gone back, and it is publicly said that he is going to propose the restoration of a Monarchy with Kaiulani on the Throne..."

In September, 1895, the Independent commented:

"We quote from the Advertiser that: "Mr. Thurston believed it would be better to do something than to sit still... This expression is the very essence of Mr. Thurston's character. There is an ever increasing number of people in these islands who think it unfortunate that Mr. Thurston could not sit still in January, 1893..."

In an article published by the Independent, September 1895, the poet Joaquin Miller referred to "... the feast of fat things taken from the confiding Queen of Hawaii and her simple people... He continued: "The Queen's land alone... which they seized... had brought her the best half of a quarter of a million. the Honolulu Water Works, perfected under the late King, and being the property of the Crown, brings $100,000 clear profit. The Custom House is a mine of gold..."

On the Republic of Hawaii government, Miller wrote further:

"...Reverting again to the little family oligarchy which has been masquerading under the name of a Republic, it is safe to say that because of its misrepresentations and money-getting propensities, it is almost as odious aboard as it is at home, where the grass is beginning to grow in the street because of stagnation. And that is why London and Berlin are hinting to Washington that if we don't want the Islands, the present government should be quietly laid aside, as a misfit shoe, and the little Princess (Kaiulani) placed at the head, in case the Queen still refuses to make further claim to her once prosperous and happy Hawaii..."

Now it could be clearly seen by many. The heir apparent was being purposely kept away from Hawaii for political reasons. Despite her terrible anguish over the bad news from home, somehow her life went on. 

*   *   *   *   *

In the late 1890s, during one of their visits to the South of France, Kaiulani and her father befriended a young man, Nevinson William de Courcy (nicknamed Toby). the son of an English Baron, Toby was a qualified architect and civil engineer and was regarded as an eligible bachelor and ideal escort for the well-bred young ladies in those Victorian days. A long correspondence continued between Kaiulani and Toby, who was six years her senior. She referred to him as her "Father Confessor" and in her letters was warm and confiding:


My dear Toby,

Very many thanks for yours of the 28th. I also heard from sib that she had seen you - You both say the other was looking very pale and thin, Mon Ami qu est ce qu'il-y-a? Surely you are not ailing! And I trust above all things you are not suffering from mal au coeur. I have been very seedy. Papa was over in town so he consulted the Dr. I have been suffering from too much worry!!! So I am to sleep a great deal etc. Evidently dancing is not harmful otherwise Papa would have prevented my going to a dance on Wednesday. Toby I feel so naughty, I have such a nice flirtation on your pour le moment. Don't be shocked, and leave your lecture until we meet in Menton - It is too good to believe that I shall have the pleasure of seeing you soon - won't we talk! I have such piles to tell you. I have Gertie Somers staying with me and also a Miss Brander - we are about the three biggest flirts you could find, so we simply have a lovely time. Just fancy Pa went to London on Tuesday last and returned yesterday. We had quite a nice time by ourselves!!!

It is decided we start on the 30th and reach Menton Jan 1 rather a ghastly day to reach a place. I had a letter from Lilian Kennedy. She seems to be having a perfectly A.I. time - fancy - they went to a luncheon, she and her Ma - and 7 men were invited to meet them. there weren't any women in the place. do you think you'd like to live there? I am quite shocked to think that you should long for "Absinthe". We intend going to the Louvre again - You see Fat George is the attraction. Madam van Asbeck is there again. do you know her? She was chiefly conspicuous by the absence - I should like to see that charade. I think it must be rather fine! I did not know you could do that sort of thing!

An excited, scribbled note followed, asking Toby to bring all the men he knew to a forthcoming dance.

La Chaire
Rozel Jersey

My Dear Toby

I am really ashamed of myself for having delayed so long in acknowledging your letter. I thank you very much for your kind wishes on my birthday - I laughed very much when I thought of my other birthday - what fun we had that night!

At last we have got back to our little Jersey home. I was quite glad to get back though the trees are all bare, and the weather far from nice - still, it is the one place that I can boss the show, so to speak. I am feeling very dull indeed. Papa has a bad cold, and is consequently in the vilest of tempers. It is most unfortunate as he has been free from colds for s long. He has an idea that he is going to pip which is most annoying - however one must put up with these little annoyances.

We spent a week in town, and then stayed a week with some friends at Southsea. I saw the "Prisoner of Zenda" and "A Night Out" whilst in town - I simply howled with laughter at the latter - it was really too funny - especially when the old Papa comes rushing in with a huge red chest protector on. I really thought I was going to have a fit. If you are up in town and want to laugh - just go there. We were pretty gay at the Longham - had a charming suite of rooms, and simply went the pace while we were up.

We are going down to Menton about the 19th of December - George O'Dell is there already - I am looking forward to seeing you, my Father Confessor - I hope we may have a pleasant winter. I think Mrs. Suggett will join us - without Jean Erls - your particular friend. I am very fond of Mrs. Suggett - "if you want me - I'm just here!, her particular phrase...

One of my young men came to see me yesterday - I am supposed to be polishing him off - I can't make up my mind to do so just yet must have a little more fun as my fling is limited - I intend to get as much amusement this winter as I possibly can. there is a possibility of my being married in April to a man I don't care much for either way - rather a gloomy outlook - but "noblesse oblige" - I must have been born under an unlucky star - as I seem to have my life planned out for me in such a way that I cannot alter it. Do you blame me if I have my fling now - better now than afterwards.

My engagement is a "great secret" - approved of by Mr. Davies and my Father - is is being kept secret for political reasons. Personally I think it wrong like this, as it is unfair to the men I meet now - especially if they take any interest in me.

I am not feeling at all fit, as I had two teeth taken out on my birthday. My jaw was fearfully cut up trying to remove the bits as they splintered. I have had a very bad time of it, as you may fancy. I hope I shall soon get one of your cheery letters, that is if you have nothing else to do.

With love from Papa and myself
Believe me
Yours ever sincerely


More to Toby from Ravensdale, the Davies' new house at Tunbridge Wells, written July 4th, 1897:

I have not left for Scotland as you will see by the direction, instead I am wending my way Jerseywards. I start on Monday with Elise, and Papa will join us in a week or ten days. He intends going down to Bournemouth to see the Bishop of Honolulu, and also...? The fact of the mater is, he intends taking a little jaunt around the country and enjoying himself.

I shall find it very dull in Jersey as my particular "amusement" is in Woolwich for the summer. Is it not provoking? It is just my luck when I am dull not to have anything on hand.

I have lived on milk for the past two months and am not taking very much exercise. Consequently I am growing fairly fat. I think I can stand a little more flesh on my bones, still I don't want to grow fat, it is so vulgar you know. Another reason I am growing stout, I have not been able to be up to any of my larks. I've quite got out of the way of flirting! I don't believe I could do it to save my skin. Now, don't laugh!

I am really feeling very much better, but have still to be very careful. I was so annoyed a few days back. I managed to get down for breakfast and stayed up fairly late in the evening, having also played croquet during the afternoon, when on my way to bed, I again had one of my fainting fits. It shoed me that I must be more careful, but all the same it is very hard lines, and I hate posing as an invalid.

Where are you going to spend your summer" There is some talk of my going over to pay my revered Aunt a visit, but as yet things are extremely undecided. They talk of Annexation, but whether they will get it is quite another thing. However, things are in a very bad way out there, and I am now pretty certain that we shall never have back our own again... I am really rather sorry the way the whole thing has finished up much better have a republic than to lose our nationality altogether... I am very sorry for my people, as they will hate being taken over by another nation.

If I went over to see my aunt I would only stay about three weeks there and return again here. My ex-Guardian is going out to Hawaii the latter part of September. He has a great deal of interest in sugar, and he seems anxious about it. He may think it advisable for me to return home the end of this winter.

The friendship between Princess Kaiulani and Toby de Courcy continued through the years of 1895, '96, and '97, when they both holidayed in Menton, in the South of France. He kept her letters for the rest of his life. As for Kaiulani's secret engagement, it was popularly thought that she would someday marry Prince David Kawananakoa, who was a nephew of Queen Kapiolani's and a lineal descendant of King Kaumualii of Kauai. It was as though the engagement had been hurriedly arranged in a desperate attempt to strengthen the badly beleaguered Throne. Whatever the intent and whoever the betrothed, somewhere along the line of troubled events the plan seems to have been abandoned as no engagement was even publicly announced. 

*   *   *   *   *

The trial of Queen Liliuokalani opened on February 8, 1895. She was charged with "misprision of treason." Entering the Throne Room wearing a simple black dress and hat and carrying a lauhala fan, the Queen was calm and dignified as she faced the men whom she once welcomed in the same room when she was reigning queen. In a firm voice, she said: "I owe no allegiance to the Provisional government established by a small minority of the foreign population... nor to any power or anyone, save the will of my people and the welfare of my country..."

Another part of her statement was real to the court: "To prevent the shedding of the blood of our people, native and foreign alike, I quietly yielded to the armed forces brought against my throne ... and submitted to the government of the United States, the decision of my rights and those of the Hawaiian people..."

Liliuokalani's trial lasted four days. She was then isolated again in her rooms at the palace for another twenty days... then summoned to hear the verdict: "Five years imprisonment at hard labor... and a $5000 fine."

After eight months, the Queen was released and given a "confidential pardon" by President Dole of the Provisional Government. Most of the imprisoned 191 royalists were also released or had their sentences greatly reduced, following waves of protest from all over the United States. After leaving her "prison" at Iolani Palace, Liliuokalani was allowed to return to her residence at Washington Place. Placed under constant surveillance by PG guards, however, she could only leave the house with their permission. In January, 1896, the Queen was released from parole, but forbidden to leave th4e Island of Oahu. She moved to her ocean retreat at Waikiki where her friends, who had been too fearful to visit Washington Place, now felt free to join her, to weep, to sing and to talk freely, at last, about the t4ragic events of the last three years. Still in her mind was the plan to visit the United States to present her case to the American people. She was awaiting the day when she'd be free to travel.

"Hawaii for the Hawaiians" was now just a faint cry. In  December, the Queen informed President Dole of the Republic, that she wished to travel again to the mainland, mainly to San Francisco and Oakland, to visit friends, and relatives of her late husband. Cautioning her against traveling in the harsh cold of winter, dole was really concerned that she might visit Washington; to stir up trouble again. Still, he graciously granted passports to "Liliuokalani of Hawaii" and her traveling companions. Sensing the undertones, the Queen wrote in her journal" ... every word, every look, every act of mine, was being noted down by spies, to be reported somewhere to my hurt."

Kaiulani wrote to her aunt:

37 Avenue Marceau
May 9th, 1897

My Dear Aunt,

Very many thanks for your kind letter.

Annie's sudden death has been a very great shock to both of us - I can hardly realize that the dear girl has gone. (Kaiulani's half-sister, Annie Cleghorn)

I am sorry to say that I am not feeling at all well. My nerves are all out of order and I suffer continually from headaches. I daresay you have already heard of the awful catastrophe which took place here at Bazarde Charite. I have never heard of anything so fearful in my life. Nearly all of the 117 victims were women and young ones too. There is a count next door who has lost his two daughters, girls of 18 and 19. What strikes one so is it's being in one's own station of life, the smartest society women of Paris.

The death of the duchesse d'Alemon throws the Austrian, Belgian and Bavarian Courts into mourning, not counting the Arleans and King of Naples families. Just imagine all those people gone in less than half an hour. And the dreadful agony they must have suffered. I have never seen any place so overcast as the gay City of Paris - you see all the people selling were connected with the highest aristocracy of France.

I hope that you are keeping well and that you are enjoying yourself in Washington. I am going on the 19th to Ravensdale, Tunbridge Wells to stay with the Davies. I hope the change will do me some good.

Meanwhile, eager Annexationists in Honolulu were heartened as Grover Cleveland was ousted in the November 1896 elections and Republican William McKinley became President. He wasted no time in submitting the Hawaiian Annexation Treaty to the Senate in June of 1897. President McKinley's choice of a U.S. Minister of Hawaii, was Harold M. Sewall, an ardent advocate of Hawaiian annexation. In a letter to the Daily Press in Maine, dated June 28th 1894, he had savagely attacked President Cleveland's Hawaiian policy. word of this event reached Kaiulani and her father on the Island of Jersey where they were holidaying at their favorite retreat. Kaiulani was despondent over the news as it now seemed that Hawaii would be annexed to America.

Archie Cleghorn and his daughter discussed the situation far into the night. Kaiulani felt that her "exile" was now senseless and that she was no longer able to endure her absence from home Whatever Hawaii's fate might be, she wanted to be there to share it with her people. Her life had no real meaning in Europe. The next morning they made plans for her return to the islands. Throughout June 1897, Kaiulani still holidayed for the summer, with her father. They enjoyed the long, balmy days in a small cottage nestled in a copse of trees, on the Island of Jersey. The setting always reminded Kaiulani of home. One afternoon, their peace was spoiled, when news reached them that Annexation  was imminent in Hawaii. "After all the long struggles of the Royalists, it's come to this..." Gleghorn reflected.

*   *   *   *   *    

They made arrangements to sail from Southampton on October 9. On their way to Hawaii, Kaiulani and her father visited Washington. They called on the deposed Queen, who now spent as much time as possible in the capital. Her mission was to explore any means of righting the wrong done to the Hawaiian Kingdom. While busily preparing for the trip home at long last, Kaiulani wrote to her father from Scotland:

Johnston Lodge,
August, 1897

My dearest Papa,

I wrote to Liverpool on Saturday for ten pounds, as I was out of money. I am going to stay four days with the Barbours on Tuesday 24th... their address is Baledmund, Pitlochry.

I shall return here on the 28th. The Somers have asked me to stay with them on my way south, and the Wodehouses want us also. So my idea is to leave here on the 7th and stay with the Somers until the 10th. I thought you might go to the Ws on the 19th until the 14th.

The Davies want us on the 17th until the 20th, the two days we might spend in town.

Lady Wiseman wants me from the 24th for a few days. Perhaps you might go from St. Leonards to stay a few days at Bournemouth and also Brighton, while I go and stay with Lady Wiseman.

I want to stay a couple of days in town to pack my boxes. Have you got the address of the Hotel the Watsons spoke to you about.

May wrote and said she thought twenty four pounds too little - considering we are paying her passage out and back again. I think it extremely nasty.

I am going to write her a sharp letter, because if I have to look out for anyone I must be doing so now.

I hope you had a pleasant journey. I expect a letter from you in the morning. We have had fairly fine days since I came but Scotch weather is proverbially bad.

I am feeling very fit and hope I shall be alright. Have you seen anything of Mrs. Stewart? Please give her my love.

Mr. Davies has sent me a plan of the ship, and also the number of my room. I wonder if I shall be alone.

With aloha from all and heaps of love.
From your loving
Sunday night

Another letter from Scotland quickly followed:

August 19, 1897

My dearest Papa, You never seem happy unless you are imagining your letters have gone astray - of course I have received all your letters. I don't mention every one or all the dates.

I have already written to Mary and told her that we would pay her fare out and back again. My account is she has not half finished doing up my old things. You must not grumble at the account as I am trying to get all my things, so that I won't need to buy any out there. Besides there are heaps of things that have to be bought for the house such as tea cloths and mats and all sorts of small things. then there are all the presents. You know quite well that all the children will expect something; besides Mrs. Sproull said I ought to take out a large stock of ribbons, gloves, handkerchiefs and those sorts of things... you seem to forget that I may not return for some time.

If we were together now we would probably have a violent quarrel over this, but I am sure you will understand when things are put to you mildly. You seem surprised at my having any enjoyment at all. I had an offer of the box for the "Geisha" and thought I might take the opportunity to see it. The next might we were invited to see the "Midsummer Night's Dream". I am sure that had you had the invitation you would have gone.

I have sent the list of the linen to Mr. Davies, it will be sent overland. Well I hope you will enjoy yourself.

With love from us all
Your loving child

As planned, with all the last minute errands and farewells completed, on October 9, 1897, Kaiulani sailed from Southampton to New York on the first leg of her journey home. It was seven days before her twenty-second birthday. 

On the way home in San Francisco, the young princess was once again inundated by reporters. Impressed by her beauty and her manner, they discredited cruel rumors that were being widely circulated about her by the Provisional government.

A reporter from the Examiner wrote:

A Barbarian Princess? Not a; bit of it. Not even a hemi-semi-demi Barbarian. Rather the very flower - an exotic - of civilization. The Princess Kaiulani is charming, fascinating, individual. She has the taste and style of a French woman; the admirable repose and soft voice of an English woman. She was gowned for dinner in a soft, black, high necked frock, with the latest Parisian touches in every fold; a bunch of pink roses in her belt and a slender gold chain around her neck, dangling a lorgnette. She is tall, of willowy slenderness, erect and graceful, with a small pale face, full red lips, soft expression, dark eyes, a very good nose, and a cloud of crimpy black hair knotted high.

The writer from The Call had nothing but praise for her also:

She is beautiful. there is no portrait that does justice to her expressive, small, proud face. She is exquisitely slender and graceful, holds herself like a Princess, like  Hawaiian - and I know of no simile more descriptive of grave and dignity than this last.

Her accent says London; her figure says New York; her heart says Hawaii. but she is more than a beautiful pretender to an abdicated throne; she has been made a woman of the world by the life she has led.

When Kaiulani and her father, en route to Honoluluy, made their special trip to Washington to see Liliuokalani, they found her longing to return to the Islands. She suffered terribly from the extreme climate of the Capital City and was greatly disheartened by McKinley's action in reviving the Annexation Bill. She hoped that, by conducting her cause with dignity and persistence, justice would eventually be done and her throne restored. If that failed, she would still have to fight for the Crown Lands, which were the traditional inheritance of the Monarchy in Hawaii and the source of almost all of her and Kaiulani's income.

It was the first time that she and Kaiulani had met in eight years and the Queen was very reluctant to let them go. Shortly after leaving, they received the following letter from her:

October 26, 1897
The Ebbett House
Washington, D.C.

My dear Niece,

Your short visit to me has been very pleasant, and we have not ceased to talk of you. I wish you could have stayed a month or two longer at least until the question of the Annexation was settled. I think your presence here would have done some good, but as I knew that your and your father were both anxious to get home I naturally kept quiet.

Another reason was I had not the means to detain you which is another and most important point, during your stay I was glad to know that your heart and that of your father lay in the right direction that is: you are interested in the course of your people.

For the second time Liliuokalani writes that she has heard that Kaiulani is to be offered the throne of Hawaii.

Here is an opportunity for me to let you know something which I feel you ought to know - and I leave it for yo9ur own good judgment to guide you in your decision. It has been made known to me that it is the intention of the members of the Republican Government of Hawaii to ask you to take the Throne of Hawaii in case they faild in their scheme of Annexation. that you should have nothing to say about the managing - that shall be theirs still, but you are to be a figurehead only. If you were to accept their proposition there would be no change whatever in the situation of the country for the good of the people or for all classes of men or for business advancements. You would only be in Mr. dole's place, despised, and as he is now, in fear of his life.

You will have a few followers who will have you, but it will only be the 2600 who now are supporting dole's government and still have over 80,000 opposing you. It is through their mismanagement that their Government has not been a success. It is for this reason that knowing their instability they want to annex Hawaii to America. Another reason why their government has not been a success is the people are not with them and they are fully aware of the fact. So as a last trial they wish you to take it. I have shown you in the above, the danger. Now let me explain to you another phase. If you decline to accept the position of Queen which will place you more in favour with the people, the Republic of Hawaii will fall through as even now they can barely maintain themselves, then there will be a call from the people for a "plebiscite", then I say "accept it", for it is maintained by the love of the people.

I think Mr T.H. Davies and George MacFarlane are knowing of this plan and I know approve of it. George said to me when I was in San Francisco that you and I ought to agree on this matter, that I ought to yield to you as the R. of Hawaii, never to consent to have me reign again, that it were better if we agreed on you. I did not give him any answer because I had no right to. The people's wish is paramount with me, and what they say I abide by. Now my dear Child, for you are very dear to me, I hope you will act wisely for yo9ur own sake and be cautious in signing any documents they may present to you, reading over thoroughly and understanding it before hand - for they are the greatest liars, and deceitful in all their undertakings and your young heart is too pure to see their wickedness. I mean the PGs. My Dear Niece, may the Almighty help you. Love to your father and I think it well you should show him this letter.

With lots of Love,
Your affectionate Aunt,

Mr. Davies wrote a curt letter to the Queen in November, 1897...

"I take the liberty of saying that neither Mr. Damon or Mr. Macfarlane or anyone else has ever conferred with me in regard to putting forward claims on behalf of princess Kaiulani to the throne of Hawaii. I am also certain that under no circumstances would the princess Kaiulani have accepted the Throne except with the approval of Your Majesty and at the joint request of Hawaiians and foreigners.

He refers to the rumour as a "melancholy incident" at a time when those "in faithful service to Hawaii should stick together".

At last, Kaiulani eyes brightened at the sight of the majestic mountains rising behind Honolulu. The growing town below had spread over a much wider area in the eight years of her absence. She didn't know whether she was pleased with the development or not. for now, it was enough just to drink in the sight of this jewel in the middle of the vast Pacific; her home. A light shower of rain blessed the arrival of the S.S. Australia as the big ship edged into the crusty side of Oceanic Wharf. It was November 9, 1897. Kaiulani left here a child, now she was a woman. A huge, excited crowd made a colorful mosaic on the wharf. People had flocked from all parts of the Islands to welcome their beloved Princess home. she was their "last hope." Many were openly clinging to each other and weeping, venting long pent-up sorrows. Others were beaming and carrying strings of ilima, pikake and maile leis on their arms; gifts for Kaiulani, their returning alii. she represented more to them than they could ever explain. Her beauty inspired them; her mana kindled old flames within their breasts.

The Princess received friends on board the ship for half an hour. Eva Parker, Prince David and a handful of others crowded into the small cabin. Kaiulani scanned the crowd from the deck. finally, she left the shi and drove with her party, in a landau, directly to the royal Mausoleum in Nuuianu. Kaiulani had nursed a long yearning to visit her mother's resting place. she touched the cold marble fronting the tomb with the inscription: "Princess Miriam Likelike, 1851-1887."

"I'm home Mama," she said softly. "I'm home."

Stepping onto the precious soil of Ainahau and surrounded by familiar faces full of love and welcome, Kaiulani revelled in being home again. After getting settled, one of the first things she did was seek out fairy, the faithful white saddle pony of her childhood, who was now eighteen years old. there in the corner of a field Fairy still waited for her. Kaiulani hugged and patted him and then gently mounted the old horse. the ride was not as vigorous as it had been 8 years before, but nothing ever felt so good as the cool breezes from Manoa caressing her face while old Fairy snorted into a canter. The next day, Hawaiians, by the hundred, formed a colorful procession up the long, palm-lined driveway to the Princess' residence at Waikiki. all carried lei, fruit and other gifts, some alive and kicking, for their beloved Kaiulani. It was a comfort just to know she was back home with them at last. They had all been through many a dark night of anguish. In her delicate frame rested the last glimpse of their monarchy.

Kaiulani received them warmly, for ten hours. Many familiar faces, again now, brought up long buried memories. At nine o'clock that night, exhausted, she had to retire, emotionally drained by it all. Just after her arrival home, Kaiulani's first letter to her Aunt Liliuokalani read:

H. Is.,
November 17, 1897

My Dear Aunt,

I must just send you a few lines to let you know of our safe arrival. sin ce we got here, we have been so busy, what with receiving and getting the house in order. I am fairly worn out.

Last Saturday the Hawaiians came out to see me. there were several hundred, and by six o'clock I didn't know what to do with myself. I was so tired. It made me so sad to see so many of the Hawaiians looking so poor - in the old days I am sure there were not so many people almost destitute.

Before I say anything I want to thank you for letting me use your span. they are splendid horses, and will soon be in very good condition. It is awfully kind of you to lend them to me, and I will take good care of them. I find the place very much changed. I refer to Ainahau. The trees have grown out of all recognition; it is really a very beautiful house and very cool. A great many of the haoles have called but I am at home for the first time tomorrow. I dread it as I am so very nervous. I have asked Mrs. Carter to help me receive. It is so kind of her to come all this way out - She and her husband came all the way out the day I arrived.

I eat poi and raw fish as though I had never left, and I find I have not forgotten my Hawaiian.

Well, Auntie Dear, I must close. I will write again very soon, but at present I feel the heat so much. I can't settle to anything.

Goodbye, with much love,
I remain
Ever your affectionate niece,

*   *   *   *   *

When, on Nov. 20th, a new delegation of native Hawaiians left for the U.S. to fight annexation, Minister Sewall became quite disturbed by all this "Royalist activity". He was also apprehensive of the rumored coup to place Princess Kaiulani on the throne, as he had personally witnessed the great outpouring of affection for her when she returned home. The pro-Annexation newspaper; the Advertiser stated in articles that it was not afraid of anything Kaiulani might do, as the Monarchy was "such a thing of the past..." However, it didn't mind calling her "Princess", as long as she didn't cause any trouble. She wrote again to her aunt, who was still in Washington, on January 5th, 1898...

Thank god Annexation is not a fact, the people here are not half so happy as when I first came back - I find everything so much changed, and more especially among the rising generation of Hawaiians and half whites. I think it is a great pity as they are trying to ape the foreigners and they do not succeed.

In 1898, oth4er letters from Ainahau to her aunt in Washington followed:

Papa and are going up to stay with the Parkers. We leave on the 23rd of June, and I fancy I will stay there until the hot weather passes and I want to go away before the 4th of July festivities come off,. I am sure you would be disgusted if you could see the way the town is decorated for the American troops. Honolulu is making a fool of itself, and I only hope we won't all be ridiculed.

(The 4th of July festivities to which Kaiulani bitterly refers, celebrated not only American Independence Day for the Americans living in Hawaii, but also the fourth anniversary of the founding of the Republic of Hawaii.)

A family friend wrote that "Kaiulani hid the bitterness in her heart from the public, and strove to do what was expected of her". After the Princess' arrival back in Honolulu from England, she became one of the two vice-presidents of the newly formed Red Cross society and also quickly involved herself in the work of the Hawaiian Relief Society and other social and charitable enterprises.

To her aunt she wrote:

I should have written sooner, but writing is such a tax to my head here. I wonder why that is. I don't feel the least bit settled. I suppose it is because the old natives are all dead or married.

I am suffering from the heat, but that is to be expected, but I also have hay fever very badly which is extremely disagreeable, though it is harmless.

Her aunt's previous letter had referred to "possible overtures" of those in power, but Kaiulani replied that she was mistaken:

The people of the government are not particularly nice to me, excepting Mrs. Damon and Mrs. dole. I think they are very sorry to see me here, especially as I give them no cause to complain.

I am sure you will be very sorry to hear of the death of Mrs. Wilson (she was lady-in-waiting to Liliuokalani when she was Queen, and was her only companion during her imprisonment). I was very shocked, as I did not even know she was ill. Poor woman, she was always such a good friend of the Aliis. Such a number of our friends have died during the past few years.

*   *   *   *   * 

After Kaiulani's return to Hawaii, there was much speculation regarding her choice of a husband. during 1898, she was romantically linked with two dashing young haoles. One, the broad-shouldered Captain Putham Bradley Strong, arrived in the islands on the troopship, Peru. He was a daily visitor to Ainahau and he and Kaiulani went horse-back riding and swimming in the Waikiki surf until his ship sailed for Manila.

The second romance involved Andrew Adam, a handsome young New Englander who wrote for the Advertiser. Archie Cleghorn liked him so much that he invited him to stay at Ainahau, then found him a job as overseer on a plantation. Adams and Kaiulani were greatly attracted to one another, but they quarreled frequently and eventually became friends and nothing more. Most of her close friends felt that the Princess was preoccupied with too many worries to be seriously concerned with romance and, although there were many in love with her both here and abroad, she gave her heart to no man.

On February 19, 1898, Kaiulani gave a luau at Ainahau to celebrate the thirtieth birthday of David Kawananakoa, her "cousin ", who was seven years her senior. About a hundred guests, mostly Hawaiian, attended and the singing was lusty and long, almost drowning out the sounds of the Hawaiian National Band that played valiantly beneath the banyan tree.

HO'OAU: (To finish)
And the Hawaiians cried for the past...
For the grass houses of their kuleanas
disappeared and returned to the earth
which first gave them life
And they looked for the tall coconut
 palms of their grandfathers' youth...
The sentinels of the Islands...
Were they to disappear too?

After a lengthy stay in Washington, where she wearily continued the struggle to regain her throne, Queen Liliuokalan returned to Honolulu aboard the Gaelic on August 1, 1898. A huge crowd of Hawaiians waited on the wharf. Very few haoles were present. The Queen appeared at the head of the gangplank dressed entirely in black. Her people greeted her with silence. She gazed down at the sea of upturned faces and at last called, "Aloha!" to them. The crowd then cried "Aloha!" in response. Men, women and children wept, as she crossed the wharf, stately and dignified on the arm of Prince David Kawananakoa. In the moonlight, Princess Kaiulani emerged from the crowd to greet her aunt. They drove to Washington Place where the driveway was ablaze with torches; symbol of their family.

Two aged Hawaiian chamberlains wearing black broadcloth suits and tall silk hats stood on either side of the gateway. Kukui nuts bound in ti leaves formed the flaming torches they held. The only lamps gave off a soft vapor. With their old backs straight, the torch-bearers stood there all night, proudly guarding their Queen's residence. They had performed the same service for her, during better days at the palace. An abundance of green maile leaves encircled the white pillars and door frames. One word was written over the door in red lettering: "Pumehana", meaning "warmest greetings."

Inside, the Queen sat at her own table, in her own home, again. An island meal of raw fish and poi and fruit was served to her and her guests, while young girls gently waved white feather kahilizs over her head. In the grounds, the chanting went on for hours; greeting and praising the returning monarch. Later, all her old retainers came to greet her. their white heads bowed before her as they fell to their knees. The Queen called each of them by name and wiped tears from her eyes.  

The Annexationists got their way at last. Annexation Day, long dreaded by the Hawaiians, dawned on August 12, 1898. The ceremony was to take place in spite of the protests of both Hawaii's hereditary rulers and most of its populace. With the Republic of Hawaii now four years old, President McKinley in Washington set the date for transference of sovereignty to the United States. Sanford Ballard Dole, the President of the Republic, and Harold M. Sewall, U.S. Minister to Hawaii, busied themselves with plans for a ceremony to hoist "Old glory" atop Iolani Palace. The largest American flag the Navy could find was raised precisely at noon on the central tower of Iolani Palace. A U.S. Naval Band lustily played "Star Spangled Banner", while two smaller U.S. flags were jerkily hoisted on each of the corner towers of the palace.

Within six minutes, the Hawaiian Islands had become a part of the United States and Annexation was at last a fact. The joy that was expected at the scene was strangely absent. Many reported seeing the wives of American officials dabbing at their eyes with handkerchiefs. Even the faces of Sanford Dole and some members of his Cabinet had turned pale during the ceremony, which was mercifully brief. Spectators were seen hurrying away to waiting carriages, apparently with no desire to linger at the scene. It was too sad a time, bitter and heartbreaking for too many. Frequent showers of rain swept over the crowd. Hawaii was a nation no more. the burning torch went out forever. One writer from San Francisco, Mabel Craft observed: "In front of the Executive building there were Americans, Japanese, Chinese... but no Hawaiians. the ceremonies had the tension of an execution."

And many other vivid descriptions were published:

"When the last strains of Hawaii Ponoi trembled out of hearing, the wind suddenly held itself back and as the Hawaiian flag left the track, it dropped and folded and descended lifelessly to Earth. The day was cloudly and there were light showers."

One satirical report said:

"Rumor spread telling there would be trap doors (on the speakers stand) and as the Hawaiian banner lowered, President dole and his Cabinet would sink slowly from sight, amidst a lurid display of colored lights and smoke."

And after the ceremony, a newsman wrote:

"We have slept our last sleep as Hawaiians. Tomorrow we arise as residents of an American territory. We must accept the situation and make the most of it, for it is an irrevocable one no matter what some folks say." He then called on the United States asking: "Uncle Sam shake! It's your turn to stand treat. The call's on you!"

Another recalled:

"Hawaii Ponoi was being played as the Hawaiian flag was lowered for the last time. Before it ended, the native musicians threw down their instruments and run away, around the corner of the Palace... to weep in private." Editor Edmund Norrie of the Independent wrote: "Farewell dear flag, farewell dear emblem of love and hospitality... of a trusting, confiding and childlike people with hearth that know no guile." The Queen and Princess Kaiulani had received invitations to attend the Annexation ceremony, but they politely declined. Instead, they spent the day surrounded by loyal friends and Royalists at the Queen's private residence, Washington place on Beretania St.

*   *   *   *   *

Having lost the throne irretrievably, Liliuokalani, with vastly diminished hope, left once again in November, 1898, for an indefinite stay in Washington where her fight would now be to regain the Crown Lands. the confiscation of these lands by the new government was a severe blow to the Queen as most of her income was derived from these hereditary holdings. Kaiulani was very upset at her aunt's departure and, as the SS Coptic sailed away with the ex-Queen on board, she fell into a depression. Neither she nor the "queen knew they had embraced for the last time. Colonel MacFarlane, the Queen's confidential advisor and representatives, tried to comfort Kaiulani and lift her spirits by pointing out that the American government respected both their positions and would surely provide an income for the Queen and herself and that she would remain a leader of her people in Hawaii. Kaiulani quietly replied "yes, but I shan't be much of a real princess shall I? they haven't left me much to live for. I don't talk about it... I try not to grieve my father who watches over me me so devotedly and seeks to make up to me for all the love I have lost. For his sake, I try not to mind... to appear bright and happy... but I think my heart is broken."

Colonel MacFarlane added that, when on January 30th, 1893, Kaiulani received the cables that broke the news of the Monarchy's overthrow, her heart suffered a shock from which she never fully recovered. His statement seemed to be borne out  by her letters from abroad to friends and relatives in which she often referred to her "good health" or "good spirits." but, in the years following the arrival of those three shattering telegrams, she constantly referred to never-ending ailments such as La Grippe (influenza), headaches, nervousness, hay fever and a lack of energy. To her aunt she wrote that she suffered continually from headaches and during her last year abroad, she refused countless invitations because of "indisposition."

From Ainahau, she wrote to her aunt who was once again installed in "Washington. the bitterness she felt at the situation in Hawaii since the American take-over was apparent in her letter:

...Daily, we as a great race are being subjected to a great deal of misery, and the more I see of the American soldiers about town, the more I am unable to tolerate them, what they stand for and the way we are belittled, it is enough to ruin one's faith in god..."

Last week some Americans came to the house and knocked rather violently at the door, and when they had stated their cause they wished to know if it would be permissible for the Ex-Princess to have her picture taken with them. Oh, will they never leave us alone? They have now taken away everything from us and it seems there is left but little, and that little our very life itself. We live now in such a semi-retired way, that people wonder if we even exist any more. I too wonder and to what purpose?

Reluctant to relinquish control, the same faction that overthrew the Monarchy continued to govern the islands for almost two years longer. Later, Lorrin Thurston openly admitted that there had been a plan by members of the "committee" to overthrow the Monarchy completely from the time Liliuokalani ascended the throne. More and more, Kaiulani looked for excuses to get away from Honolulu, finding conditions there unbearable under the new regime. Eva Parker's forthcoming wedding at the Parker Ranch, on the island of Hawaii provided Kaiulani with another opportunity to leave Honolulu. On the 7th of December, 1898, Kaiulani and a group of friends sailed on the steamer Kinau. The Parker Ranch, occupying most of the cool, elevated mountain region of Waimea, was known for its grand way of life and was the center of the Big Island's most important social events.

From the tone of her latest letter to her father, Kaiulani enjoyed attending Eva parker's enormous wedding at Mana (the seat of the Parker Ranch) and the many holiday festivities that followed. In the first week of the New Year, 1899, guests began to leave the ranch and return to their respective islands. but, Kaiulani was reluctant to return to Honolulu and stayed on at Mana with other wedding guests that tarried. Kaiulani often rode off alone on one of the many trails at the ranch. She wanted to be alone with her thoughts, but they would always torment her so that she raced back at full gallop to rejoin her friends. Memories of her life in England brought pangs; she could still hear the clipped voices of her friends; their merry laughter. It now seemed like another lifetime... During one of her lone rides, she suddenly noticed a strange eerie silence had descended, there was no wind, no sound from the nearby stream, even the birds had stopped chirping. the silence thundered. then, from out of nowhere an old Hawaiian man appeared on the trail in front of her. Her horse shied and she was almost thrown from the saddle. She felt annoyance growing in side her, as she settled her mount down. Hw dare anyone jump out and startle her! The old man's eyes caught her as she faced him. they were unusually bright and youthful, she thought, in such an old face. His hair was thick and white; his skin dark brown and lined with age. He was dressed simply in a clean, white long-sleeved shirt and black pants and a red bandana was knotted about his neck. His feet were bare.

At first she thought he must be just one of "the locals" who would soon prostrate himself in front of her and begin to recite endless prayers or greetings. Many times since she returned, she had been greeted in this way, because she was an alii. "Please," she thought. "Not now! I don't have time for any of this!"

She spurred her horse, but the animal would not move. Then the old man's voice rang out as he addressed her in Hawaiian. All her Hawaiian blood surged inside her and she knew in that instant that he was a kabuna. "Beware young alii! he said. "Rain clouds gather overhead!" His words were very colorful; full of symbolism and imagery and she realized that she was suddenly as fluent again in her understanding of the Hawaiian language, as she was in her childhood. He intoned on with mention of her dead mother, that the same clouds that engulfed Likelike, now threatened her daughter. He spoke of family secrets too dark to even comprehend and Kaiulani felt as if she would faint. His voice was trailing off as he warned her to pray to her old gods, to prepare herself spiritually... but she realized with alarm that she didn't know how. As if clinging to life itself, she kicked her horse and rode off.

She looked back, but he was nowhere to be seen. by the time she returned to the ranch, Kaiulani was feeling very shaken. Her friends asked if there was anything wrong, as she looked so pale. they put a blanket around her shoulders and she began to tell them of the incident. Most of them told her not to worry, as it was typical of the old people in this region; to take the old Hawaiian ways so seriously, but Prince David Kawananakoa was very disturbed by the story, when it was related to him.

*   *   *   *   *

In the middle of January, a group of revellers from the ranch, formed a riding party and headed off into the crisp cold air and soft green hills characteristic of Waimea. They were caught in a sudden downpour and drenched while they scrambled to don the raincoats attached to their saddles. the saturating rain of Waimea blows sideways like an icy knife that cuts and chills to the bone. Kaiulani pulled her cold hair loose, shook her head up or she'd catch her "death of cold". But with a fatalism that had lately become part of her makeup, she replied: "What does it matter? What have I got to live for?" Then off she went, swallowed up by the mist and driving rain, until her friends could no longer see her. Probably Kaiulani's last letter to her father written from Mana on January 6, 1899:

Dearest Pa,

Many thanks for your letter. I am glad to know you have been enjoying yourself. You seem quite gay with your reception for the officers. I hope it will be successful - I hear the little men are rather nice. Tho' they don't speak much English. Of course I don't mind lending Ainahau to any of our own friends. I only regret I won't be there to attend the reception. We are all well and it goes without saying we are enjoying ourselves immensely -

We had more than enough fun at the Ball in Waimea. All the people were in their best clothes and had their best manners. the Jarretts asked us to it, and they provided supper for our party, and very good it was too. I did not dance very much as I was too amused watching the Country Bumkins. We left at 12 o'clock as there seemed to be an unlimited supply of liquor going around, and I knew the people would enjoy themselves better if we were not there. We went in the only conveyances there are to be had, between Hamakua and this side of the Island. Hardly any springs and the road was a thing to dream of - once I thought sure we would never right ourselves again. It had been raining all that day (Friday) and Saturday we could not see twenty yards away - the fog was so thick. We left that evening for Mana in spite of the weather. My goodness the rain cut one's face like hail and it was blowing like cats and dogs. We got home at 7.30, wet to the skin, but thanks to a warm bath and warm drink and our dinner, we were none the worse for it.

The men were obliged to stay at the Hotel and as luck would have it, the night of the dance, Capt. Lydig's luggage got taken to Puopetu. Sam Parker gave it to the man who drove us to the dance and told him to give to C.L. When we came back at midnight we found it still in the carriage. It seems they had all got soaked through our shooting, and instead of going to the dance, Capt. Lydig had to go to bed! I fancy he and Major Nicholson were very much disappointed at their accommodation, which I think was very ungrateful of them, when the girls were sleeping 8 in a room - they ought to consider - there were besides the family. Cupid and wife, David, Stella Cockett, Leihulu, Kitty and Mrs. Robt. Partker, Dorcas Richardson, Capt. Ross Sproull, Capt. L. Mayan, myself and Hilda and Mary, besides the family... there have been over twenty-eight ever since the wedding... you know about the size of the houses.

Tuesday we rode over to Waipio, got there about 3.30 p.m. there were quite a number of natives culled and during the evening the natives came and serenaded us. As there was a good floor we had some dancing. We all turned in about midnight, but they kept it up till morning. The next morning we took a ride around the valley, unfortunately it began to rain, so I had no time to see my land or rather our land. I am sorry as I would have liked to have seen it. We had to hurry as Lamaheihei was afraid of the Pali being too slippery. I never rode up such a place in all my life. I was simply hanging on by my teeth. We had a splendid ride home, jumping logs and pig holes -

A good many of the party go home today - I mean the native relations. Our plan is to leave fort the volcano, taking the Kinau, then leaving for Kaulua on the following Monday... We get to Hilo on Wednesday evening staying there until Friday at John Baker's place. go up to the volcano on Friday or Saturday and leave on Sunday for Panahau to catch Mauna Loa. David goes down on the Kinau today to bring up the Dowager. Helane and Stella Cockett and Mr. Parker go up with me to volcano. Being a stockholder, Sam can get cheaper rooms there. Eva and Frank spent Xmas with us here.

I want you to send me my money for this month, what is left and also the $40 for January - I may not need it. but I want to have it any way. Please don't forget. (A belated Merry Xmas follows)

Merry Xmas to you all. My love to the family. I am so very sorry Helen has been so seedy. What was the matter with her? Tell Elsie to send up my holokus without fail. I want them badly. Send me up some Bromo Quinine pills, also get me headache powders No. 75618 from Hollister - We never ordered sardines in November. One dozen bought for my party by Putty.

Our love to you all, and with much for yourself from,

Your loving

Koa will tell you all news.

On January 24th, a Honolulu newspaper reported: "Princess Kaiulani is quite ill at the Parker home at Mana, Hawaii. governor Cleghorn leaves for Mana on the Kinau today."

Cleghorn took the family physician, Dr. Walters, with him, to examine Kaiulani. Anxious about their Princess' health, Honolulu readers soon learned from the newspapers that "Princess Kaiulani is much improved. She and her father Gov. Cleghorn will return to Honolulu on the next sailing of the Kinau."

Kaiulani was carried on a litter from the Parker ranch to Kawaihae and onto the steamer Mauna Loa, as the Kinau had sailed without her. By now, Dr. Walters had diagnosed her illness as "inflammatory rheumatism" with the complication of "ex-opthalmic goiter." Kaiulani was in great pain throughout the rough sea journey back to Honolulu. Hawaiian crew members on the ship were very worried about the comfort of their precious passenger. they came by her cabin often with extra blankets, the few cushions or pillows on board; anything they had to offer. Back in Ainahau, her home in Waikiki, Kaiulani was put to bed in her darkened room. Her father sat for long hours beside her four-poster bed. Friends called daily to see her, the tracks of many carriage wheels furrowing the long dusty driveway between the phoenix palms.

By the beginning of March, Kaiulani's condition had not improved. doctor Walters, puzzled that Kaiulani had not responded to treatment, called in doctor Miner to assist him and both doctors employed all their medical skills to arrest the rheumatism that was now dangerously attacking the patient's heart. She had a bad turn on Saturday morning, march 5th, but throughout the day she seemed to show signs of improvement as the doctors continued to labor over her. But just after midnight, the relentless illness began its work of prying her from life once again. Kaiuolani tried to sit up. her swollen throat had choked off her voice and she looked imploringly at Dr. Miner through half-close eyes filled with pain. The exhausted doctor patted her hand helplessly, and sent for the family to assemble in the sickroom.

Monday, March 6th, 1899 - from midnight to 1.30 a.m., Kaiulani's breathing was very unsteady. Dimly, through glazed eyes, she saw Koa, Helen Parker, Kate Vida, her half-sisters Helen and Rosie, and her father's stricken face leaning close beside the bed. The clock had laboriously ticked to 2 a.m. when Kaiulani moved convulsively and cried out one muffled word. some said she called "Mama!" Others thought it was "Koa!" or "Papa!"

Suddenly the room was very still.

Kaiulani was gone.

For many miles around, anxious people, awaiting news of the Princess, knew the precise hour of her death, because at 2.00 a.m. her pet peacocks began screaming wildly. Loud and long, their almost human cries pierced the night. Drs. Miner and Walters gave the cause of death as cardiac rheumatism and ex-ophthalmic goiter. Their opinion was that she might have recovered from either ailment, but the combined assault was too much for one who was never constitutionally strong. Kaiulani was twenty-three years an d almost five months old at the time of her death. All day Wednesday, Kaiulani lay in state at Ainahau. The newspapers were full of reports:

"The servants, many of whom had known Kaiulani since she was a baby, filed past her body, and gave way to uncontrollable grief. Scattered about her as she lay peacefully sleeping, were dozens of orchids and orange blossoms of purest white."
"Out in the grounds, mournful dirges of the band mingled with the wailing of the older natives as their voices rose now and then in the weird chanting of ancient meles."
"All day long the beautiful avenue leading to the residence at Ainahau, was crowded with people who came to pay their last respects. Throughout the spacious grounds, groups of Hawaiians were scattered, giving way to true spontaneous grief as they clung together throughout the shrubbery, and under the banyan."

Among the small but loyal band of foreigners who defended the Monarchy was one Joseph O. Carter. On the death of the Queen's nice he wrote the following letter:

Honolulu, HI
March 9th, 1899
Her Majesty
Washington D.C.
Dear Madam, It is with the most profound sorrow that I convey to your notice of the death of your niece the Princess Kaiulani.
She passed away after much suffering at two o'clock a.m. of the sixth instant.
In previous letters I told you of her serious illness, but until the first of the current month, I entertained hopes for her recovery. As soon as possible after hearing of her death, my wife Liliu and I went to Ainahau and met with the nearly heart-broken father and other relatives. As your representative, Mr. Cleghorn discussed with me plans for the funeral ceremonies. Mr. Dole offered the Throne room of the Palace for the lying in state of the remains of the Princess.
Mr Cleghorn decided at once that such a disposition of the remains was impossible in which decision I supported him, but after much thought the offer of a State funeral by the Executive was accepted. Of course I should have preferred a similar funeral but one which would have been the expression of more sincerity and sympathy. However, reasons were given why the State ceremony should be permitted. yesterday the remains lay at Ainahau and thousands of people viewed them, including all classes and conditions of our population.
On Saturday next, the remains will be in the Kawaiahao Church in Casket and the public allowed to view them. The funeral will be on Sunday next at 2 p.m. Program of procession and order of exercises not public yet.
I learn since this letter was commenced that Prince David (Kawananakoa) has loyally and generously assumed the charge of expenses incident to the funeral (on the authority of J.F. Colburn) and if I had known of this in time I should have urged a funeral on different lines, on e that royalists could have directed.
Hawaiians are not altogether pleased to see Mr. Dole's officers so prominent in the conduct of affairs. Stranges in this city comment on the wrong done to Hawaiians and their aliis by the American government taking Hwaii nei from the hands of Mr. dole and his government.
Accept from me and the members of my family sincerest sympathy in your bereavement.
Very truly yours
J.O. Carter

The funeral observances were transferred to Kawaiahao Church. The casket of carved koa wood was borne into the church and placed on the bier in front of the platform. Covering the bier was a purple plush pall, lined with yellow silk, over which was spread the yellow feather pall of royalty.

A newsman wrote the following:

"Around the bier were arranged the large kahilis... Royal insignia... some twenty in number."

"Fragrant maile was wreathed around the pillars of the Church, while from the center of the Arch was suspended an emblematic white dove with outstretched wings."

"At the head and foot of the bier on stands were floral crowns... one of white carnations and the other of ilima and maile."

"High up on each side of the organ pipes were hung the royal Standards of Kaiulani and Likelike."

"At all times both at Ainahau and the church, four Hawaiian kahili beaters or wavers stood on each side of the casket, silent and at periodic intervals of about 3 minutes, would slowly bend forward their kahilis to meet their opposites, and pausing awhile... or with one or two slow lateral motions would raise them again and bring them to shoulder."

"Hawaiian songs and chants were heard throughout the night."

"It rained all day Saturday, but Sunday morning, the day of the funeral, there was a glorious burst of sunshine... Scheduled for 2 o'clock, people began gathering at 10 a.m. there was a huge crowd mostly on foot, inside and outside the Church."

Bishop Willis of the Episcopal church conducted the service, while the organist played "In Memorium." written for Likelike's passing in 1887 and not played since. One of Kaiulani's recent beaux, Andrew Adams sat for hours, heartbroken beside Kaiulani's casket. He had once given her a riding saddle which became her favorite. Cleghorn gave his permission for it to be in or near the casket when she was laid to rest.

As Kaiulani was laid beside her mother, Princess Likelike, in the royal Mausoleum, the 23rd psalm was chanted by St. Andrews Priory girls. Two kahili bearers preceded the procession out of the Church carrying two magnificent kahilis of fresh maile intertwined with ilima leis. They were the gift of Prince David Kawananakoa. Twenty-seven kahili bearers surrounded the catafalque. As the casket was placed on it the old Hawaiians began wailing and chanting meles.

A large double rope of black and white attached to the catafalque, extended through the church grounds and out into the street. Two hundred and thirty Hawaiians who had coveted the honor, drew the body of the Princess with this rope, to her last resting place... the royal Mausoleum in Nuuanu.

The newspapers reported: "Amid tolling of bells, booming of guns, the funeral dirge played by the band, the wailing and chanting of the natives, the long procession started on its way to the royal Tomb... through King St. to Alakea... Emma St. to Vineyard... to Nuuanu... Over 20,000 people lined the streets."

A few days after her death, a local paper wrote:

The fortune of Kaiulani is not a large one. She has been in receipt of an allowance from the Hawaiian government, and quite recently the best men in the country to a considerable number petitioned Congress to continue an allowance to one deprived of wealth and exalted position brought no fault of her own.

In the weeks following Kaiulani's death hundreds of letters poured into Honolulu from all over the United States, some offering sympathy to her grieving family, but a great number, addressed to members of President dole's reigning government, accused them personally, often not in the most polite language, of causing the Princess' untimely death. One letter addressed to Sanford B. Dole, carefully written in copperplate style and accompanied by another page bearing twenty-five handwritten signatures, was postmarked Atlanta, Georgia. For three lengthy paragraphs it ramblingly scolded dole and his "puppets" for "stealing the Princess' Royal inheritance" and "snatching away the Throne she was prepared all her life to occupy". The letter closed by assailing "the cheap adventurers who invaded the Hawaiian Islands just to make money".

The letter was signed:

"Princess K's Friends in the South."

After Princess Kaiulani's death in March, 1899, the Advertiser wrote of her:

"Everyone admired her attitude. they could not do otherwise. Her dignity, her pathetic resignation, her silent sorrow appealed to all. the natives loved her for her quiet, steadfast sympathy with their woe, her uncomplaining endurance of her own. the whites admired her for her stately reserve, her queenly display of all necessary courtesy while holding herself aloof from under intimacy. It was impossible not to love her..."

HO'OLOLI:  (To transform)
And when Hawaiians die...
They change physical form according to their kuleana...
The claim of their family to the protection of a certain spirit.
So look to the myriad forms of life in the Islands.
For the souls of departed Hawaiians are blowing in the
Or flowing in the lava from a volcano's core
Or dancing in the fire-lace flung from its red mouth
Or flying as the pueo, the mysterious owl
Or crackling across the sky as thunder and lightning
Or slicing through blue ocean waters as sleek sharks
Or lying still in fire-lit streams by night...
Long and dark as the mo'o, the water-spirit with
gleaming eyes.

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 (E-mail: jane@janeresture.com  -- Rev. 6th January 2007)
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